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Drainage System And Its Significance
Drainage is the disposal of excess water on land (either used or in form of storm water). It must be distinguished from flood management which is the prevention of damage as a result of overflow from river. There are two type of system adopted for waste water collection. Separate sanitary and mixed system. In separate sanitary system, there is a separate sewer that collects the household, commercial and industrial waste water and disposes them while a separate sewer collects the storm water and disposes it separately. In the combined system, each the storm water and home water are conveyed by way of the identical pipe network.
Sanitary sewers ought to have a self cleansing velocity of (.6-1
m/s). This self cleansing velocity is achieved by laying the drain on a steep slope. Manholes ought to be positioned at interval of 100-120m for the aim of maintaining and servicing of the sewer. It should be noted that waste water within the sewer are normally transported by gravitational force quite than mechanical means (pumping) for handy sake. This is why in laying sewer pipes; the topography of the area ought to be well understood.
The storm water flow can be estimated by .278CIA where C is the coefficient of runoff, I is the rainfall intensity and A is the catchment area. C is often got from table which is a function of factors that affect infiltration. From rainfall data I may be estimated.
A can be estimated by utilizing planimeter or superimposing scaled grid paper on the map and note the grid that fall within the boundary of the map . The waste water from industry, commercial facilities and home makes use of are usually estimated by knowing the quantity of waste water the users' discharges by means of the use of questionnaire and personal interview. The population of people and number of industries must be noted for this estimation.
The overall steps in format sewers include:
Set up complete map of the realm together with road contour, topography and utilities
Drains are shown with a single line with arrows for direction
Manholes are shown with a dot at all its needed places as the junctions and its intermediate level of a hundred-120m interval
Sewers are design to comply with natural topography
Sewers are largely branch network
Sewers or drains are normally situated along the road
Design approach for sewers is as follows;
Estimate manning fixed and choose slope
Compute the part factor
Get the very best hydraulic part either rectangle or trapezoid
Check the satisfaction of minimum velocity
Addition of adequate freeboard to avoid overflowing
The disposal of the waste water may very well be treated or not treated. Nevertheless, the remedy is normally by organic method. The disposal of waste water is of immerse important for financial growth. The treated or untreated waste could be used as a supply of irrigation, supplement stream or river flow and may very well be used as a supply of recharge for ground water.
It's obvious within the cities of the growing countries that probably the most of building industries don't take note of all of the above talked about process. Because of this storm water follows drains that are not specified for them or overflows the drains there by inflicting erosions. Then again, among the storm water are stagnant within the drains there by becoming a breeding place for mosquitoes and toads. This may result in increase of malaria and water related disease within the vicinity. All this is because; most authorities in such cities have not but understand the important of drainage systems and the position it plays in social- economic development.
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